Dyslipidemia

Written by Dr. Mary

What is Dyslipidemia?

Our body needs cholesterol in order to continue building healthy cells but too much cholesterol can have unhelpful impacts on our health. This condition occurs in different patterns and is often preventable and treatable.


A blood that has an excess of lipids is often referred to as “dyslipidemia” a common problem that affects the blood of both man and women. From the word dys + lipid (meaning cholesterol) + emia (in the blood) basically a disorder in the blood. It is defined as the overproduction of the amounts of the lipids in the blood. In addition is also known as “lipid disorders or hypercholesterolemia”, cholesterol in abnormal high levels. Aside from genetic reasons it arises due to the lifestyle and to the eating habits of the people around the world.

For you not to increase the chance of getting a disease caused by lipid disorders. The following factors need to be considered:

  • Age and Gender (45 years older for men, 55 years older for women – The lipids of older men and women (the menopausal period) are rising.
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Elevated lipoprotein (type of fat that present in your blood)
  • Hereditary (family history)
  • High Blood Pressure (ranging from140/90 or higher)

According to some studies, the patients having this illness can develop diabetes in the future and they found out that more than a million of people (both men and women) passed away due to high cholesterol level that leads to the increase of mortality.

Generally, lipid disorders are classified in two ways based on the cholesterol level of the affected patient. The classifications are as follows:

  • Phenotype. Lipid disorder is present due to the increased of the fatty lipids in the body.
  • Etiology. A disorder wherein genetic reasons (family history) and other conditions are much harder to control.

The most common types of dyslipidemia are as follows:

  • High Cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia)
  • High Triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia)

Symptoms

More than twenty (20) years old and above should take lipoprotein profile wherein you can assess your cholesterol numbers. The procedure can gives us information about the total cholesterol result; it’s LDL (bad) and HDL (good) cholesterol, and the triglycerides after nine (9) o twelve (12) hours.

Note: For accurate measurements, avoiding eating and drinking anything before the blood sample is taken.

Listed below are the signs and symptoms of dyslipidemia:

  • Asymptomatic disease (coronary artery disease)
  • Abdominal pain – Lacking of blood supply to the intestines
  • Acute pancreatitis ( caused by hypertriglyceridemia)
  • Confusion and dypsnea
  • Heart Disease
  • Aphasia – difficulty in speaking
  • Dizziness
  • Impairment of balance
  • Calf pain when walking
  • Stroke – decreased blood flow to your brain
  • Chest pain – due to inadequate blood supply to the heart
  • Tendinous xanthomas (elbow, knee tendons, etc.)

Causes

There are numerous causes that lipid disorder can occur, including:

  • Overproduction and defective clearance of the cholesterol
  • Sedentary lifestyle (excessive intake of fatty foods)
  • Overuse of alcohol
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Intake of drugs like retinoids, estrogen, glucocorticoids, etc.
  • Underactive thyroid gland
  • Taking certain medicines, birth control pills, etc.

Treatment

The management of lipid disorder greatly depends on the age, signs/symptoms of the affected persons. The following are remedies / treatment may apply to lower the level of cholesterol (fat) in the body including:

  • Eat well-balanced diet – Almost fifteen (15) percent of cholesterol may decrease when strictly controlled. Eating foods that are naturally low in fat (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, etc.) a good sources of soluble fiber to prevent other health complications.
  • Weight Management
  • Exercise Regularly – (walking, yoga, dancing, etc.) – Exercise for at least thirty (30) minutes everyday. Maintain this habit and you will see the desired result.
  • Quit smoking – An important treatment to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Healthy Lifestyle – It is recommended that patients should eat fish, vegetables, in order to lower their cholesterol level.
  • Medicines / Drug Treatment – Available drugs for lowering cholesterol includes statins, bile acid, nicotinic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors. Helps in preventing the fastening of fatty deposits to arterial walls

Note: Your attending physician only can prescribe these medicines for they know the doses of each medication depending on the severity and condition of the patient.

  • Surgery (for particular severe subtypes)

Guidelines

A variety of clinical guidelines for the treatment of elevated cholesterol levels. Specifically, listed below are the following recommendations/ guidelines you may consider:

  • High and Very High Risk Patients. An LDL level of less than 100 mg/dL. An option to use drug therapy to go below 70 mg/dL goal.

Statins should be used primarily used for the avoidance aligned with macrovascular complications in patients, (both men and women). An estimate of twenty (20) percent chance of having heart failure occurs in this condition.

  • Moderately High-Risk Patients. An LDL under 130 mg/dL, but there is a therapeutic option to set a lower LDL goal of under 100 mg/dL and to use drug treatment at LDL levels of 100 – 129 mg/dL to reach this lower goal.

This can be done by taking a combination of doses of satin with other medicine (resins, ezetimible, etc.) in the prevention of coronary heart disease.

  • Lower/Moderate Risk Patients. An estimate of two (2) percent chance of having heart failure occurs in this condition.

Lifestyle change (good nutrition, physical activity, and weight control). It helps in reducing cardiovascular risks through a number of mechanisms beyond the lowering of LDL cholesterol.

Note: Moderate doses of a statin should be taking by the affected patients especially with type 2 diabetes mellitus

These guidelines are more useable tools to the patients (and their physicians) that estimates the percentage on the management of dyslipidemia.

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